Researchers at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) reported that they observed three never-before-seen particles: a new pentaquark and the first pair of tetraquarks, which includes a new type of tetraquark.
The findings, presented at a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) seminar, add three exotic members to the growing list of new hadrons found at the LHC. They will help physicists better understand how the quarks are joined together in these composite particles.
The results of the new study come 10 years after the announcement of the discovery of the Higgs boson, an elementary particle proposed in the standard model of physics that confers mass to matter in the universe, on July 4. It receives its name in honor of Peter Higgs who, together with other scientists, proposed in 1964 what is now called the Higgs mechanism to explain the origin of the mass of subatomic particles. With François Englert he received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work.
On July 4, 2012, CERN announced the observation at the Hadron Collider of a new particle “consistent with the Higgs boson”, but more time and data would be needed to confirm this. Still, Science magazine declared it the biggest discovery of that year.
The discovery was made in the LHCb experiment, the result of international collaboration and which is part of the LHC, a ring located in an underground tunnel 27 kilometers in circumference on the border between Switzerland and France. It was conceived to explore what happened after the Big Bang and what allowed matter to endure and form the universe 13.8 billion years ago.
“The more analyzes we perform, the more types of exotic hadrons we find,” said Niels Tuning, coordinator of physics at the LHCb. “We are witnessing a period of discovery similar to the 1950s, when a hadron ‘particle zoo’ began to be found which eventually led to the quark model of conventional hadrons in the 1960s. We are creating a ‘particle zoo 2.0’. ‘”.
LHCb spokesperson Chris Parkes said: “Finding new types of tetraquarks and pentaquarks and measuring their properties will help theorists develop a unified model of exotic hadrons, the nature of which is largely unknown. It will also allow a better understanding of conventional hadrons.”
From Guerrero to Lausanne
In Lausanne, Switzerland, more than 10 thousand kilometers from San Miguel Totolapan, Guerrero, his home state, Cristóbal Miguel García Jaimes, a student at the Faculty of Sciences of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, took his professional exam remotely and obtained the bachelor’s degree in physics.
His work, in the form of a project to support scientific teaching outside the classroom, entitled The science combi: there is no place where science cannot reach…, seeks to visualize teaching action in the rural communities of Guerrero.
In an interview, García Jaimes, National Youth Award 2014, recalled that during confinement he was accepted to do a postgraduate degree at the Federal Polytechnic School of Lausanne, where he is one of the scientists who manufacture the Lepton Circular Collider, which will measure 100 kilometers in length. diameter, and “it will be the largest machine that mankind has ever built.” The Marie Curie Foundation financed his stay.
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